OLD COUNTRY AND PROMISED LAND
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Restoration History #2
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- Protestant Reformation
16th century challenges to authority of the Pope in Western Europe
- Lutheran Reformation [Luther, 1517]
- Reformed Reformation [Zwingli & Calvin, 1518]
- Radical Reformation/Anabaptists [Menno Simons, 1520s]
- English Reformation [Henry VIII & Cromwell, 1530's]
- Scottish Reformation [John Knox, 1559]
Unless I am convinced by Scripture and plain reason - I do not accept the authority of the popes and councils ... my conscience is captive to the Word of God. -- Martin Luther
We acknowledge and confess that we now ... have two sacraments only, instituted by the Lord Jesus ... baptism and the supper, or table of the Lord Jesus. -- Scottish Confession of Faith (1560)
Legacy of the Reformation
- Papal authority rejected
- Biblical authority emphasized
- Worship simplified
- Baptism and Communion essential sacraments
- The Enlightenment
- Philosophical movement during 17th and 18th century.
- Confidence in the power of human reason.
- Knowledge comes through experience and observation.
- All assumptions about life, world and humanity are reconsidered.
René Descartes (1596-1650)
I think, therefore I am.
Sir Francis Bacon (1561-1626)
- Introduced empirical method
- Promoted Christian unity as reasonable
- Truth is fruit of experience, not authority
John Locke (1632-1704)
- Founder of Empiricism
- Human Reasoning and the Tabula Rasa
- Separation of Church and State
- Power resides with the people
Thomas Reid (1710-1796)
- Scottish Common Sense School of Philosophy
- We know things directly
- University of Glasgow professor
Legacy of the Enlightenment
- Emphasis on Human Reason
- Truth is perceived through experience and human senses
- Common Sense - We know things directly and do not infer them through ideas.
- Religious Revival
- Religious revivals generated new religious movements.
- Congregationalists (Cotton, 1636)
- Quakers (Fox, 1647)
- Methodists (Wesley, 1729)
- Baptists (Williams, 1639)
- The Great Awakening of 18th century [Johnathan Edwards
& George Whitefield] split some mainline churches.
Legacy of the Revivals
- Church autonomy
- Evangelicalism - personal saving faith rather than routine membership in the national church
- Fractured fellowships - Presbyterians & Anglicans especially
- American Democracy
- The American Colonies are religiously diverse and a refuge from persecution.
- America is regarded as uncorrupted
- American democracy appeared to be Gods government.
- America was destined to be the land of the millennial dawn.
Great Seal of the United States
ANNUIT COEPTIS = He has smiled on our beginnings
NOVUS ORDO SECLORUM = A New Order of the Ages
Theres an all-seeing eye ...
Gods Promised Land
A battle flag of the Revolution read: Resistance to Tyrants is Obedience to God
Freedom from Church Control
- Casting out the Anglican Bishop (1769)
- No lords spiritual or temporal in New England!
- Banner: Liberty and Freedom of Conscience.
The U.S. Constitution
- If God-ordained nation was possible, why not religion?
- Many churches organize to become independent American churches.
When we shall have unlearned everything which has been taught since [Jesus] day, and got back to the pure and simple doctrines ... if nothing had ever been added ... the whole world would at this day have been Christian. -- Thomas Jefferson (1821)
- James OKelly (1735-1826)
- Methodist; North Carolina & Virginia
- I am for Bible government, Christian equality, and the Christian name.
- Abner Jones - Vermont
- Elias Smith - New Hampshire
- New England Christian Connection
Legacy of American Democracy
- Millennial expectations
- Independence from older state churches
- Primitive, simple religion
- Independent churches - religious freedom
West-Ark Church of Christ, Fort Smith, AR
Evening Sermon, 9 March 2008
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